Israel seems important in the Bible. Where did these people come from?

Bonus Questions
Who does Jesus tell they will sit on thrones and judge the 12 tribes of Israel? (Matthew 19:28, Luke 22:29-30)
What tribe was Jesus from? (Hebrews 7:13-14)
What tribe was Paul from? (Philippians 3:4-6)
What tribe was Anna from? (Luke 2:36-38)
What tribe was John the Baptist from? (Luke 1:5)
Why is the tribe of Dan excluded in Revelation 7? (?)

Main Thought
Some of the most boring parts of the Bible include reading a bunch of hard to pronounce names. But, if we understand how the nation of Israel began, changed, and the history of God continuing to work through His chosen people, despite their failures, the Bible becomes much more interesting as we get closer to the new city and more prophecies are fulfilled.